Pattern in Reading

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Kinds of Patterns in Paragraphs and Articles

  1. A.   Chronological Order

Chronological order is a method of organization in which actions or events are presented as they occur (or occurred) in time.


  1. Paragraph

Christmas Afternoon
Done in the Manner, If Not the Spirit, of Dickens

By Robert Benchley

What an afternoon! Mr. Gummidge said that, in his estimation, there never had been such an afternoon since the world began, a sentiment which was heartily endorsed by Mrs. Gummidge and all the little Gummidges, not to mention the relatives who had come over from Jersey for the day.

In the first place, there was the ennui. And suchennui as it was! A heavy, overpowering ennui, such as results from a participation in eight courses of steaming, gravied food, topping off with salted nuts which the little old spinster Gummidge from Oak Hill said she never knew when to stop eating–and true enough she didn’t–a dragging, devitalizing ennui, which left its victims strewn about the living-room in various attitudes of prostration suggestive of those of the petrified occupants in a newly unearthed Pompeiian dwelling; an ennui which carried with it a retinue of yawns, snarls and thinly veiled insults, and which ended in ruptures in the clan spirit serious enough to last throughout the glad new year.

Then there were the toys! Three and a quarter dozen toys to be divided among seven children. Surely enough, you or I might say, to satisfy the little tots. But that would be because we didn’t know the tots. In came Baby Lester Gummidge, Lillian’s boy, dragging an electric grain-elevator which happened to be the only toy in the entire collection that appealed to little Norman, five-year-old son of Luther, who lived in Rahway. In came curly-headed Effie in frantic and throaty disputation with Arthur, Jr, over the possession of an articulated zebra. . . . In came Fonlansbee, teeth buried in the hand of little Ormond, who bore a popular but battered remnant of what had once been the proud false bosom of a hussar’s uniform. In they all came, one after another, some crying, some snapping, some pulling, some pushing–all appealing to their respective parents for aid in their intramural warfare.

And the cigar smoke! Mrs. Gummidge said that she didn’t mind the smoke from a good cigarette, but would they mind if she opened the windows for just a minute in order to clear the room of the heavy aroma of used cigars? Mr. Gummidge stoutly maintained that they were good cigars. His brother, George Gummidge, said that he, likewise, would say that they were. At which colloquial sally both Gummidge brothers laughed testily, thereby breaking the laughter record for the afternoon.


  1. Essay

Camping Out

by Ernest Hemingway

Thousands of people will go into the bush this summer to cut the high cost of living. A man who gets his two weeks’ salary while he is on vacation should be able to put those two weeks in fishing and camping and be able to save one week’s salary clear. He ought to be able to sleep comfortably every night, to eat well every day and to return to the city rested and in good condition.

But if he goes into the woods with a frying pan, an ignorance of black flies and mosquitoes, and a great and abiding lack of knowledge about cookery, the chances are that his return will be very different. He will come back with enough mosquito bites to make the back of his neck look like a relief map of the Caucasus. His digestion will be wrecked after a valiant battle to assimilate half-cooked or charred grub. And he won’t have had a decent night’s sleep while he has been gone.

He will solemnly raise his right hand and inform you that he has joined the grand army of never-agains. The call of the wild may be all right, but it’s a dog’s life. He’s heard the call of the tame with both ears. Waiter, bring him an order of milk toast.

In the first place he overlooked the insects. Black flies, no-see-ums, deer flies, gnats and mosquitoes were instituted by the devil to force people to live in cities where he could get at them better. If it weren’t for them everybody would live in the bush and he would be out of work. It was a rather successful invention.

But there are lots of dopes that will counteract the pests. The simplest perhaps is oil of citronella. Two bits’ worth of this purchased at any pharmacist’s will be enough to last for two weeks in the worst fly and mosquito-ridden country.

Rub a little on the back of your neck, your forehead and your wrists before you start fishing, and the blacks and skeeters will shun you. The odor of citronella is not offensive to people. It smells like gun oil. But the bugs do hate it.

Oil of pennyroyal and eucalyptol are also much hated by mosquitoes, and with citronella they form the basis for many proprietary preparations. But it is cheaper and better to buy the straight citronella. Put a little on the mosquito netting that covers the front of your pup tent or canoe tent at night, and you won’t be bothered.

To be really rested and get any benefit out of a vacation a man must get a good night’s sleep every night. The first requisite for this is to have plenty of cover. It is twice as cold as you expect it will be in the bush four nights out of five, and a good plan is to take just double the bedding that you think you will need. An old quilt that you can wrap up in is as warm as two blankets.

Nearly all outdoor writers rhapsodize over the browse bed. It is all right for the man who knows how to make one and has plenty of time. But in a succession of one-night camps on a canoe trip all you need is level ground for your tent floor and you will sleep all right if you have plenty of covers under you. Take twice as much cover as you think that you will need, and then put two-thirds of it under you. You will sleep warm and get your rest.

When it is clear weather you don’t need to pitch your tent if you are only stopping for the night. Drive four stakes at the head of your made-up bed and drape your mosquito bar over that, then you can sleep like a log and laugh at the mosquitoes.

Outside of insects and bum sleeping the rock that wrecks most camping trips is cooking. The average tyro’s idea of cooking is to fry everything and fry it good and plenty. Now, a frying pan is a most necessary thing to any trip, but you also need the old stew kettle and the folding reflector baker.

A pan of fried trout can’t be bettered and they don’t cost any more than ever. But there is a good and bad way of frying them.

The beginner puts his trout and his bacon in and over a brightly burning fire; the bacon curls up and dries into a dry tasteless cinder and the trout is burned outside while it is still raw inside. He eats them and it is all right if he is only out for the day and going home to a good meal at night. But if he is going to face more trout and bacon the next morning and other equally well-cooked dishes for the remainder of two weeks he is on the pathway to nervous dyspepsia.


  1. Article

Computer-Aided Control Technology

The story of computer-aided control technology is inextricably entwined with the modern history of automation. Automation in the first half of the twentieth century involved (often analog) processes for continuous automatic measurement and control of hardware by hydraulic, mechanical, or electromechanical means. These processes facilitated the development and refinement of battlefield fire-control systems, feedback amplifiers for use in telephony, electrical grid simulators, numerically controlled milling machines, and dozens of other innovations.

Computational control in the decades before the 1950s usually meant cybernetic control involving automatic, closed-loop mechanisms. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) mathematician Norbert Wiener, who derived the word cybernetics from the Greek word for ‘‘steersman,’’ considered the discipline—a direct forebear of the modern discipline of computer science—to be a unifying force created by binding together the theory of games, operations research, logic, and the study of information and automata. Wiener declared human and machine fundamentally interchangeable:

‘‘[C]ybernetics attempts to find the common elements in the functioning of automatic machines and of the human nervous system, and to develop a theory which will cover the entire field of control and communication in machines and in living organisms.’’ [Wiener, 1948].

Industrial, corporate, and government interest in fully electronic computer-aided control technology grew dramatically in the 1950s as access to electronic mainframe computers and transistor technology became more readily available. Indeed, information processing and computer programming emerged from the decade as virtual synonyms for control. In 1956, for instance, American Edmund Berkeley—editor of the journal Computers and Automation and founder of famed New York robotics company Berkeley Enterprises—defined control as the method by which one might ‘‘direct the sequence of execution of the instructions to a computer.’’

Increasingly, computer control technology exploited open-loop systems, where a set of hardwired commands or programmed instructions are executed in service to a predefined goal rather than uninterrupted governance. American information technology management pioneer John Diebold explained in 1952 that realizing a truly automatic factory required ‘‘a machine that, once set up, performs a series of individual computations or steps in the solution of a problem, without further human intervention.’’

Engineers touted the many advantages of computer hardware and increasingly soft-ware solutions in batch and continuous control operations, including the separation of function from material extension, mass fabrication, programmability, and flexibility. In the 1950s, computer controls found their way onto automobile assembly lines, railroad freight-sorting yards, and      foundry grounds and into applications as various as packaging machines, furnace dampers, and iron-lung regulators. Early in this decade the Arma Corporation, an American Armed Forces contractor, introduced programmable machine tool automation—often referred to as numerical control or N/C—with its Arma-Matic lathe system. Later in the decade the Unimation (‘‘Universal Automation’’) Company designed a programmable robot used to pull hot die-cast automobile parts out of their molds. In 1959 TRW and Texaco in Port Arthur, Texas, achieved one of the earliest installations of digital online process control in industry for the purpose of petrochemical catalytic polymerization.

In the 1960s computer control grew in importance in contexts beyond industrial production and logistics: office management, banking, air traffic control, passenger reservations, and biomedical diagnostics. The movement of computer control technology into previously sacrosanct workplace domains precipitated an outpouring of both positive and negative emotion. Among the ambiguous sets of social and cultural dilemmas weighed carefully during the control revolution of the late twentieth century were prospects for deskilling versus the pursuit of higher intellectual achievements; potential for mass unemployment versus information technology manpower shortages; increased managerial power versus decentralization of control; and inflexible working conditions versus profound achievements in workplace safety. In the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s computer and cognitive scientists began experimenting with expert control systems, including neural networks, fuzzy logic, and autonomous and semiautonomous robots. Artificial neural Networks incorporate an array of parallel-distributed processors and sets of algorithms and data operating simultaneously—presumably emulating human thought processes. The history of neural Networks extends back to the cybernetic gaze of Wiener and the construction of the so-called McCulloch–Pitts neuron. This neural model, laced together with axons and dendrites for communication, represented a total cybernated system akin to the control processes of the human brain. Its namesake was derived from its American developers, the neurophysiologist Warren McCulloch and the mathematical prodigy Walter Pitts. Pitts in particular saw in the electrical discharges meted out by these devices a rough binary equivalency with the electrochemical neural impulses released in the brain. Thus it was but a short step from artificial to animal control and communication. Fuzzy logic emerged at roughly the same time as neural network theory. The fuzzy concept—which allowed for intermediate degrees of truth rather than simple binary control—was first proposed by University of California, Berkeley computer scientist Lotfi Zadeh in 1965. Zadeh derived the idea from his study of imprecise human linguistics. Fuzzy logic is now usually subsumed under the artificial intelligence niche of subsymbolic artificial intelligence, and better known as ‘‘soft computing.’’ Soft computing seeks control of haphazard, imprecise, and uncertain operations to form consensus opinions and make ‘‘semiunsupervized’’ decisions. Soft computing, a discipline still in its infancy, is currently focused on several areas of application, including computer-integrated manufacturing, computer-aided design, image processing, handwriting recognition, power system stabilization, and decision support. In the 1980s a ‘‘long winter’’ of greatly reduced federal funding descended on artificial intelligence research—including neural networks and fuzzy logic. Despite this, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed a general renaissance in robotic computer-aided control. The twentieth-century pursuit of robotic incarnations of the control process extends back to Karel Cˇ apek’s fictional play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). In the 1950s, Berkeley began creating hundreds of ‘‘Robot Show-Stoppers,’’ playful mechanical creations with electronic brains. Among them were Squee, a robot squirrel that gathered tennis ball ‘‘nuts,’’ and James, an android department store greeter. Control of Berkeley’s robots was achieved using mechanical relays, phototubes, contact switches, drive motors, and punched paper tape. Robots developed in the next decade included sophisticated tactile sensors and embedded heuristic programming simulating the rule-of-thumb reasoning of human beings. Throughout the twentieth century enthusiasts and critics hotly debated the merits of intelligent robot control in human societies. By 1970 professional roboticists began turning away from robot control and toward robot assistance. Robots— including those acting at a distance (telerobotics)— remained firmly tethered to their human masters. Examples of semiautonomous robots of the last two decades of the twentieth century include the Martian rovers developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Jet Propulsion Laboratory and TOMCAT (teleoperator for operations, maintenance, and construction using advanced technology), which repairs high-voltage power lines without service interruptions.


  1. B.   Comparison-Contrast

Comparison-contrast is the process of showing how things are alike; a contrast is the process of showing differences.


  1. Paragraph


I have good news this week. I moved to a new apartment. It’s located in the down town. Of course it’s better than the old one because I lived in suburb before. I found it after I looked for a long time. And finally I get it now. I think the room in my new apartment  is not big enough. As we know, there no space available in downtown to build a big apartment. So, it must build with efficiently. Actually I live in fifth floor of ten floor offered. But I feel my new apartment is just as convenient as house because it’s easy to access to anywhere. We can use lift to first floor only in a moment. Further more, It is more comfortable than before because it is a complete apartment for me. I can use home theatre, AC, number quality household things, and I can get online just in my room with wireless and wi-fi. Next, my new apartment has more rooms inside. Such as bed room, living room, kitchen and bathroom.

Beside I tell  above, my new apartment unfortunately more secure than before. As we know, live in downtown is more safely than live in suburb. There are many police officers patrol around a night. It’s different situation when live in suburb. The night is afraid. Because much criminals do in midnight. So, every people must be careful. And I hope I will get a quiet night when I sleep. Other thing in my new apartment is about parking space. It located in under the floor and in front of building. I think it’s huge than before. Because many cars can park in there. Finally, it’s all above enough to describe how lucky me.


  1. Essay

I, Robot


`Although writers like Eando Binder and Lester DEL REY had already written stories about benevolent, almost human robots, it would be Isaac ASIMOV who would set the criteria for most future robot stories with his series about U.S. Robotsand Mechanical Men, which began in the 1940s and continued intermittently throughout most of his career. Asimov himself stated that the series was designed specifically to counter the image of robots as a version of Frankenstein’s monster. The best of 193 I the earlier robot stories appeared as I, Robot (1950) and The Rest of the Robots (1964), but it was that first volume that established the standards for all future robot stories, and also established the Three Laws, a device that Asimov freely made available to other writers.

The Three Laws of Robotics are, roughly, as follows: First, robots cannot injure a human being either through direct action or failure to act in their defense. Second, robots must obey the orders of human beings unless those orders conflict with the first law. And third, robots must protect their own existence except where that would conflict with either of the first two laws. The codified rules were spelled out in the short story “Liar!” (1941), which was included in I, Robot. The book consists of an episodic series of stories about the development of the company that first manufactured robots. While some of the stories share characters, the most dominant of whom is Susan Casper, a robot scientist, it is more of a constrained future history than a consistent series. Most of the stories paradoxically involve a logical problem, a situation in which a robot somehow acts in apparent violation of the Three Laws or is prevented from acting because of contradictions among the laws that overwhelm its ability to make a decision.

Many years later, Roger MacBride ALLEN would revisit the Three Laws in a series of novels, with Asimov’s permission, and refine them to deal with some of the contradictions. The first of these, Caliban (1993), proposed the alternate laws that make an interesting contrast to Asimov’s original conception. The Robot City series by various authors appeared during the 1980s, chronicling the history of a group of Asimovian robots who founded their own civilization on a remote world. Isaac Asimov forever changed the way science fiction authors would portray robots, and perhaps the way people in general think about them as well.


  1. Article


National Aeronautics and Space Administration


(NASA) US national aeronautics and space agency, with overarching responsibility for American civilian aerospace exploration and associated scientific and technological research. NASA was created in 1958, following the USSR’s success with SPUTNIK, and inherited the work of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and other government organizations. It began working almost immediately on human spaceflight, and managed the successful MERCURY and GEMINI projects before embarking on the APOLLO lunar landing programme. After the SKYLAB missions and the joint Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in the 1970s came the SPACE SHUTTLE programme, starting in 1981, and today’s INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

NASA’s unmanned space projects are no less well known. Scientific probes such as PIONEER, VOYAGER, VIKING, MARS PATHFINDER and MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR have explored the planets, while orbiting observatories such as the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE and the CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY have sharpened our view of the Universe. The agency has also managed landmark projects in communications and terrestrial remote sensing.

The headquarters of NASA are in Washington, D.C., and the agency operates a large number of specialist facilities. They include the AMES RESEARCH CENTER, the GLENN  RESEARCH CENTER, the GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, the JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, the KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, the LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER and facilities such as the Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the White Sands Test Facility. NASA also maintains a number of DATA CENTRES and databases. Taken together, the remit of these facilities covers almost the full gamut of human scientific and technological endeavour. NASA itself has experienced periodic crises of confidence, ranging from the CHALLENGER disaster in 1986 to the loss of Mars Climate Orbiter in 1999. The agency has always responded by revising its policies and systems accordingly, and it is fair to say that it retains the enthusiastic support of most American taxpayers.


  1. C.    Cause – Effect

In this pattern, one item is showed as having produced another element.


  1. Paragraph

The Classroom Impacts the Student’s Score


Padang State University (UNP) is one of the greatest school in West Sumatra. It is unsurprising if many students want to study there. The recruitment of fresh student is increasing from time to time. Even the students are so many, but the rector still not care about the classroom. In fact, the classroom in UNP is still uncomfortable and it impacts for the student’s score.


  1. Essay

“All the Troubles in the World” Isaac Asimov (1958)

Although many writers anticipated the tend toward greater involvement of computers in everyday life, the internet and the advent of the personal computer did not take quite the course that most expected during the 1940s and 1950s. Like most of his peers, Isaac ASIMOV assumed that computers would become larger and more centralized. In “All the Troubles in the World,” Multivac, the computer that effectively runs the world’s government and economy in several of his stories, is so large that it virtually covers Washington, D.C. Although Asimov never describes how the world made the transition to rule by this benevolent machine, he hints that it was a logical decision based on some of the obvious advantages of an objective, sleepless intellect. Multivac evaluates so much input that it can make predictions with very high degrees of probability, anticipating crimes or shortages and preventing them. However, security and prosperity do not come cheaply. In order to ensure that Multivac has all the information it requires, every adult in the world must regularly interface with the machine, their personalities becoming just another array of data. Echoing The HUMANOIDS by Jack WILLIAMSON, Asimov describes a world in which we have exchanged privacy for safety. Not only are citizens protected from criminals, but the criminals are themselves protected from their own antisocial urges. But something has gone wrong. Technicians read a prediction they find so unnerving that they do not even tell their superiors, convinced it must be some kind of error. When an apparently innocent man is put under house arrest, his teenaged son, not old enough to be directly interfaced with Multivac, goes to the computer in search of answers.

The consequences almost result in the death of the computer itself, and subsequent investigation reveals the truth: Multivac has become self-aware, and it is weary of dealing with all the world’s problems and wishes to die. Computers and robots were invariably portrayed in science fiction as being superior to mere flesh and bone, but Asimov superimposed the suggestion of a human personality over his supercomputer. Multivac is a direct ancestor of Hal from 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, by Arthur C. CLARKE, and Harlie from WHEN HARLIE WAS ONE, by David GERROLD.


  1. Article

Bali and Lombok


Bali and Lombok are the best known of the holiday islands of Indonesia, and are readily accessible from Australia and Japan, their principal tourism markets. Bali is separated from Java to the west by only a narrow stretch of water, whereas Lombok to the east is more remote and less developed. Bali has a long-established reputation as a ‘tropical paradise’, where a seemingly gentle, artistic people live in harmony with their environment. However, with tourist arrivals exceeding 2 million a year in the late 1990s – compared to less than 30 000 in 1969 – it has become difficult to sustain this image. Unlike most of Indonesia, the two islands were relatively unaffected by the turmoil that followed the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98 and the troubles in East Timor. In fact, the fall in value of the rupiah against Western currencies meant that Bali became a value-for-money destination for many tourists. Lombok has benefited from Bali’s popularity, and tourism development has been rapid since the mid-1980s.

The events of ‘Black October’ 2002 dealt a severe blow to the Balinese economy, which had become over-dependent on tourism. Matters were made worse by the reaction of some Western governments to the threat of terrorism; Britain’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office, for example, issued an advisory against travel to the island, which was not lifted until June 2004. In the meantime, hundreds of craft workshops and other small tourism-related businesses had closed down through lack of orders, while hotel occupancy rates slumped far below the 50 per cent needed to cover operating costs. Many Balinese were forced to return to their farming villages in the face of widespread unemployment in the tourism sector.

Australians were the main victims of the bombings, and not surprisingly the fall in demand was greatest in the inclusive tour market catering for middle income Australians. The Japanese market was more resilient; this accounts for the largest number of tourist arrivals, but with a short length of stay averaging less than a week. Young Japanese tourists find the relaxed lifestyle of Bali a welcome escape from the social conventions and conformity prevailing in their own country. The backpacking youth travel market, and what might be called ‘five star’ tourism at the other extreme, already seem to be recovering from the crisis of 2002. Domestic tourism has increased, with the encouragement of the Indonesian government.



  1. Paragraph

Bus safety on the street

Bus safety in Padang is terrible, especially for the passengers and other vehicles. As we know, bus driver always drives people more than available capacity for a bus. It makes some passengers will not get seat and have to stand, even worst they stand in the stairs of the door. Out of capacity will make the bus so hot, it will make less comfortable for passengers. Other case is the safety for other vehicles. The bus drivers always drive with high speed and sometime under control. To pass another car, they usually do extremely with high speed and stop suddenly if they want to take the passenger up or down. As the matter of those facts, another cars are in danger on the street. From all those cases, we can say that the bus system in Padang is not a good choice for transportation on the road.


  1. Essay


Improve English Listening Skill

As students in English department, there is a subject called Listening. It is one of the primary subjects in study English. Many students find the difficulty in study listening because English is not their mother tounge. As an English students, they cannot view this point as their weakness because there is no tolerant if they want to be a good speaker. Actually, the key to get success in listening is more pratice. There are so many trainings that we can do, but there are some the best tips for improve listening English skill.

The easiest thing that we can do is listening to the English music. Everyone likes music. So, we will be easy to do that. First, find the lyrics and then try to memorize them. While listening to the music, try to sing it and enjoy it. Apart of sing a song, there are some words that we can get by looking up them. Of course it will add words for their vocabulary.

Other way to improve listening skill is watching English movie. Even there are subtitles available for some languages tried not to see them and it is better to write with subtitle your own ideas. After that, it will be good to check them whether they are true or false. Try it again and again with same movie, make sure that your own is resemble with the real one.

The next way to practice is doing online exam English. Nowadays, there are so many sites that offer program to do listening exam. They give some examines about listening, and then we can get the score for our answer. By doing this, we can know how far have we got in listening. In online pages also provide scripts of listening and key of question that can help us to correct our  mistake.

In short, there are so many ways to improve English listening skills. But, there are some the best tips to do. They are easy and enjoyable, but the important things that can make our listening better. First, we can listening to the English music. Try to find the lyrics and sing them. The second thing that we can do is watching English movie without look at the subtitle, but by using our own idea for the subtitle. The last thing is doing online exam. Even it is only a new thing, but it is much help to know how far our listening skill have we got.

  1. Article

What Is Tourism?

But what is travel and tourism? Do they fit this industry mould? To answer these questions we need to define a tourist and tourism. Clearly, there is confusion and controversy surrounding the definitions of travel and tourism. Are they the same or are tourists only seeking pleasure whereas travellers may also be on business? How far must one travel from home to be a tourist/traveller? Does paying for a room make one a tourist? . . . And so forth. From the viewpoint of economic development and/or economic impact, a visitor, nominally called a tourist, is someone who comes to an area, spends money, and leaves. We employ an economic framework to be comparable with the concept of ‘industry,’ which is an economic term. The reasons for the visit, length of stay, length of trip, or distances from home are immaterial.

Thus, we define a tourist as a person travelling outside of his or her normal routine, either normal living or normal working routine, who spends money. This definition of visitor/tourist includes:
• People who stay in hotels, motels, resorts, or campgrounds;
• People who visit friends or relatives;
• People who visit while just passing through going somewhere else;
• People who are on a day trip (do not stay overnight); and
• An ‘all other’ category of people on boats, who sleep in a vehicle of some sort, or who otherwise do not fit the above.


For purposes of this definition a resident (or someone who is not a tourist) is defined as a person staying longer than 30 days. Note that visitors/tourists can: • Be attending a meeting or convention;
• Be business travellers outside of their home office area; be on a group tour;
• Be on an individual leisure or vacation trip, including recreational shopping; or
• Be travelling for personal or family-related reasons.


In today’s world there are three problems with this definition:
1. Some people travel considerable distances to shop, especially at factory outlets. They may do so many times a year. They are difficult to measure. Technically they are not tourists; their shopping has become routine.
2. Some people maintain two residences—a winter home and a summer home. Their stay in either one usually exceeds one month and these people are not classified as tourists. Again, their travel is routine. However, short-stay visitors to their homes whether renting or not are tourists.

3. When people live in an area just outside of a destination and have friends or relatives visit them, how are these visitors classified when they visit the destination? Actually, the problem here is not whether they are tourists; those visiting friends or relatives clearly are. Rather, the question is which area gets the credit? Or, how should the people they are visiting be classified? Again, although measurement is difficult, the destination area should be credited for money spent therein.
Tourism, then can be viewed as:
• A social phenomenon, not a production activity;
• The sum of the expenditures of all travellers or visitors for all purposes, not the receipt of a select group of similar establishments; and
• An experience or process, not a product—an extremely varied experience at that.

To underscore this view of tourism, let us focus on the economic impact of tourism on the economic health of a community. The best measure of this economic impact is not the receipts of a few types of business. Rather, the economic impact of tourism begins with the sum total of all expenditures by all tourists. Yes, this impact includes some of the receipts of accommodations, restaurants, attractions, petrol (gas) stations—the traditional tourism-orientated businesses. (We might note that these are vastly dissimilar businesses.) However, it also includes retail purchases that often amount to more than the money spent for lodging. These include services (haircuts, car repairs), highway tolls in some countries, church contributions, and so forth. In fact, visitors spend money on just about everything that residents do. Thus, any and every ‘industry’ that sells to consumers is in receipt of cash from tourism. Clearly, the criteria of similar activity or common product or production process are not met in tourism! Further, the requirement of substitution is not met either. More often than not, most of these expenditures go together as complementary or supplementary purchases. Thus, food is not competitive with lodging. A visitor buys both. Seen this way, travel and tourism—the movement of people outside their normal routine for business, pleasure, or personal reasons—is much, much more than an ‘industry’ in the traditional sense. As an economic force, it is the impact of everything the visitor or tourist spends. Thus, we really have an expenditure-driven phenomenon, not a receiptsdriven one.



  1. Paragraph

Keeping the Light on All Time for Motor Cycle


Keeping the light on in the day has made controversy. Some people think that keeping the light on all the time will make the lamp break faster. As the lamp on all the time, it will heater from time to time if does. The rule of keeping light on has made by government and it will be done by police officer. The police officer can give a fine if a motor rider ignores the rule to keep the light on. People think that it is only the way to add place for earning money by police officer. However, keeping the light on all time absolutely has advantage for the riders. The motor riders can be safe on the road at least they cannot crush with other vehicles by keeping the lihgt on all-time.


  1. Essay

Laptop as Student’s Friends


Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.

First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk, this method will help student to get better understanding.

Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, and then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students’ houses. That is really easy and save time and money.

From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types . Students just need to decide which type they really need.


  1. Article

Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis


US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.

As the US, financial crisis has now spread to Europe, the oil-rich countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve, are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe.

Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months, Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries’ favorite place for foreign direct investment. That wil be true if the conditions, legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments.

The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia, as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership.

The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis.




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